Severe atherosclerosis of the aorta and development of peripheral T-cell lymphoma in an adolescent with angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia

J Andreae, C Galle, K Magdorf, D Staab, L Meyer, M Goldman, U Querfeld
British Journal of Dermatology 2005, 152 (5): 1033-8
We report an adolescent girl with a history of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) diagnosed at the age of 10 years. The patient also suffered from chronic persistent multiresistant herpes simplex virus infection. Atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the abdominal aorta and its major branches was observed at the age of 17 years, necessitating vascular surgical intervention 1 year later because of disease progression. Histological examination of the aorta disclosed widespread atherosclerosis and high levels of gene expression of both T-helper cell type (Th) 1- and Th2-derived cytokines. This suggests that a highly stimulated systemic immune response including increased production of both Th1- and Th2-derived cytokines such as interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 may result in severe atherosclerotic lesions at a very young age. In addition, the patient developed a peripheral T-cell lymphoma at the age of 18 years. Neither systemic atherosclerosis nor T-cell lymphoma has been reported in association with ALHE. It is suggested that a highly stimulated dysfunctional immune response may play a key role in persistent inflammatory disease and premature development of atherosclerosis as well as malignant transformation of T cells.

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