JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW
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New and classic insights into presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome and its treatment.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome classically presents with atrophic choroidal scars, which are thought to progress into choroidal neovascularization in a small proportion of patients. The pathophysiology of the disease, including its underlying etiology, continues to be controversial and subject to ongoing research. Even more important is the controversy that surrounds the optimal treatment for choroidal neovascularization in patients with presumed ocular histoplasmosis, in particular that of subfoveal localization.

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS: Intense efforts oriented toward defining the most beneficial therapeutic modality have resulted in some well-designed, large studies that evaluated submacular surgery, photodynamic therapies, and anti-angiogenic therapies, as well as small pilot studies exploring new therapeutic approaches for choroidal neovascularization.

SUMMARY: Important results obtained by these studies were recently made public, and the conclusions that may be drawn from them, as well as an update on findings concerning presumed ocular histoplasmosis etiology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology are presented in this report.

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