Removal of congo red from aqueous solution by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon: kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses

Indra Deo Mall, Vimal Chandra Srivastava, Nitin Kumar Agarwal, Indra Mani Mishra
Chemosphere 2005, 61 (4): 492-501
Present investigation deals with the utilisation of bagasse fly ash (BFA) (generated as a waste material from bagasse fired boilers) and the use of activated carbons-commercial grade (ACC) and laboratory grade (ACL), as adsorbents for the removal of congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions. Batch studies were conducted to evaluate the adsorption capacity of BFA, ACC and ACL and the effects of initial pH (pH(0)), contact time and initial dye concentration on adsorption. The pH(0) of the dye solution strongly affected the chemistry of both the dye molecules and BFA in an aqueous solution. The effective pH(0) was 7.0 for adsorption on BFA. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption of CR on all the adsorbents was a gradual process. Equilibrium reached in about 4h contact time. Optimum BFA, ACC and ACL dosages were found to be 1, 20 and 2 g l(-1), respectively. CR uptake by the adsorbents followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Equilibrium isotherms for the adsorption of CR on BFA, ACC and ACL were analysed by the Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson, and Temkin isotherm equations. Error analysis showed that the R-P isotherm best-fits the CR adsorption isotherm data on all adsorbents. The Freundlich isotherm also shows comparable fit. Thermodynamics showed that the adsorption of CR on BFA was most favourable in comparison to activated carbons.

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