(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate promotes pro-matrix metalloproteinase-7 production via activation of the JNK1/2 pathway in HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells

Mihye Kim, Akira Murakami, Kyuichi Kawabata, Hajime Ohigashi
Carcinogenesis 2005, 26 (9): 1553-62
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 (matrilysin-1) plays significant roles in the growth, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal tumors, while (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol with chemopreventive properties, has been shown to be an inhibitor of MMP-2 and MMP-9. In the present study, HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells were treated with EGCG to examine its effects on pro-MMP-7 induction and production using RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Surprisingly, EGCG (10-100 microM) treatment increased both intracellular and extracellular pro-MMP-7 protein levels (2.6-8.4-fold and 1.9-6.4-fold, respectively) in dose- and time-dependent manner, with a significant upregulation of its mRNA expression. EGCG also activated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2, c-JUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), as previously reported. In addition, the polyphenol triggered the phosphorylation of c-JUN (Ser63 and Ser73) and induced c-JUN/c-FOS, thereby increasing the DNA binding activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1), as shown by an AP-1 luciferase reporter assay. Pharmacological blockade of MAPK activities suggested that pro-MMP-7 expression was induced via JNK1/2 activation, but not in the case of ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine, superoxide (O2-) dismutase and catalase attenuated the EGCG-induced pro-MMP-7 production, suggesting an involvement of oxidative stress in these events. Conversely, EGCG spontaneously generated O2- in a cell-free system that utilized a cytochrome C reduction method. Further, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (25 and 100 microM) and green tea polyphenols (33 and 132 microg/ml) induced pro-MMP-7 expression, whereas (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin (100 microM each) did not. Induction of pro-MMP-7 expression by EGCG was also shown in another human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2. Our results suggest that some green tea catechins induce pro-MMP-7 production via O2- production and the activation of JNK1/2, c-JUN, c-FOS and AP-1 in HT-29 cells.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"