COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

The relationship between magnitude of proteinuria reduction and risk of end-stage renal disease: results of the African American study of kidney disease and hypertension

Janice Lea, Tom Greene, Lee Hebert, Michael Lipkowitz, Shaul Massry, John Middleton, Stephen G Rostand, Edgar Miller, Winifred Smith, George L Bakris
Archives of Internal Medicine 2005 April 25, 165 (8): 947-53
15851648

BACKGROUND: The magnitude of proteinuria is associated with a graded increase in the risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to relate baseline and early changes in proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to long-term progression of hypertensive nondiabetic kidney disease.

METHODS: Post hoc analysis of a randomized 3 x 2 factorial trial. A total of 1094 African Americans with hypertensive renal disease (GFR, 20-65 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)) were followed up for a median of 3.8 years. Participants were randomized to a mean arterial pressure goal of 102 to 107 mm Hg (usual) or 92 mm Hg or less (lower) and to initial treatment with a beta-blocker (metoprolol), an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ramipril), or a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (amlodipine)

RESULTS: Baseline proteinuria and GFR predicted the rgate of GFR decline. For each 10-mL/min per 1.73 m(2) lower baseline GFR, an associated mean +/- SE 0.38 +/- 0.08-mL/min per 1.73 m(2) per year greater mean GFR decline occurred, and for each 2-fold higher proteinuria level, a mean +/- SE 0.54 +/- 0.05-mL/min per 1.73 m(2) per year faster GFR decline was observed (P < .001 for both). In multivariate analysis, the effect of baseline proteinuria GFR decline persisted. Initial change in proteinuria from baseline to 6 months predicted subsequent progression, with this relationship extending to participants with baseline urinary protein levels less than 300 mg/d.

CONCLUSIONS: The change in the level of proteinuria is a predictor of subsequent progression of hypertensive kidney disease at a given GFR. A prospective trial is needed to confirm this observation.

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