[Foetomaternal erythrocyte incompatibilities: from immunohaematologic surveillance of pregnant women to haemolytic disease of the newborn]

E Miquel, B Cavelier, J C Bonneau, P Rouger
Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine 2005, 12 (1): 45-55
Despite the generalization of prevention measures against foetomaternal alloimmunization with anti-D immunoprophylaxis since 1970s, retrospectively 30 years later, its complications (new-born child's severe haemolytic disease, foetal death by anemia or nuclear icterus by bilirubin encephalopathy) have not disappeared. At the same time, alloimmunizations against antigens other than D increase with no possible prevention. As part of the set up in France of regional files analysing and making an inventory of serious foetomaternal incompatibilities requiring in utero or neonatal transfusion, we felt the need to synthesize current data, biological profiles (early screening of erythrocytic alloimmunization and its follow up during pregnancy, father's immunohaematologic status, evaluation of in utero immune haemolysis and impact of new non invasive techniques of diagnosis-RH1 foetal genotypage from ADN foetal of RH1--mothers' maternal plasma), clinical and paraclinical data (evaluation of foetal haemolysis by echography, recording of foetal movements and foetal cardiac rhythm), therapeutic indicators (in utero foetal transfusions or exsanguinotransfusions, neo and postnatal transfusions or exsanguinotransfusions, induced premature labour, newborn's intensive continue phototherapy and Rhesus immunoprophylaxis) in order to enable medical and paramedical professionals to carry out the specific supervision of pregnancies with foetomaternal incompatibility, the in utero, neo- and postnatal treatment of child and the efficient therapeutic prevention of anti-D alloimmunization, in a cooperative way.

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