Outcome after cardiac arrest: predictive values and limitations of the neuroproteins neuron-specific enolase and protein S-100 and the Glasgow Coma Scale

Rüdiger Pfeifer, Angelika Börner, Andreas Krack, Holger H Sigusch, Ralf Surber, Hans R Figulla
Resuscitation 2005, 65 (1): 49-55

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest are at risk of subsequent death or poor neurological outcome up to a persistent vegetative state. We investigated the prognostic value of several epidemiological and clinical markers and two neuroproteins, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S-100 protein (S-100), in 97 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) after non-traumatic cardiac arrest between 1998 and 2002.

RESULTS: 52.6% of the patients died, 28.8% survived with severe, moderate or without neurological disorders, and 18.6% remained in a persistent vegetative state. Unconsciousness>48 h after CPR predicted a 60.6-fold (95% CI 14.3287-257.205, p=0.001) and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)<6 points after 72 h a 11.2-fold (CI 95%, 3.55-36.44, p<0.001) risk of poor neurological outcome. Serum levels>or=65 ng/ml for NSE and >or=1.5 microg/l for S-100 increased the risk of death and persistent vegetative state 16.8 (95% CI 2.146-131.520)- and 12.6 (95% CI 1.1093-99.210)-fold, respectively. By combination of the GCS with elevated serum concentrations of both neuroproteins above the cut off levels on third day after CPR a poor neurological outcome was predicted with a specificity of 100%.

CONCLUSION: The combination of GCS with the serum levels of both neuroproteins at 72 h after CPR permit a more reliable prediction of outcome in post arrest coma than the single markers alone, independent of the application of anaesthetic agents.

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