Predictive factors of emergency hospitalisation in Alzheimer's patients: results of one-year follow-up in the REAL.FR Cohort

L Balardy, T Voisin, C Cantet, B Vellas et al.
Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging 2005, 9 (2): 112-6

OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictive factors of hospitalisation in patients with Alzheimer's disease followed in the REAL.FR cohort.

METHODS: A French multicentre prospective study (REAL.FR) following 516 patients who had mild to moderate AD at inclusion. Analysis of the data after one year of follow-up.

RESULTS: 139 (26,9%) of the 516 initial AD patients were hospitalized during the 1 year of follow-up. After bivariate analysis, the principal predictive factors of hospitalisation were high scores on the Reisberg scale (> or = 5: P = 0.0149) and the CDR (1: P = 0.0289; 2 or 3: P = 0.0078); > or = 2 intercurrent diseases (P = 0.00104); > or = 3 other treatments (not including specific treatments for AD) (P = 0.0026); BMI (kg/m2) between 25 and 30 (P = 0.0147); impossibility of single-leg stance (P = 0.02); > or = 1 disabilities on the ADL (P = 0.0009) and > or = 2 disabilities on the IADL (P = 0.0017); use of medical services (P = 0.0236) and of non-medical services (P = 0.0403); delirium or hallucinations (P = 0.0135), depression (P = 0.0014), or disinhibited behaviour (P = 0.0030); the gravity and frequency of behavioural symptoms (NPI freq x grav > or = 11 (median), P = 0.0012); and lastly, a score of > or = 20 for subjective caregiver burden on the Zarit scale (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed an association between the risk of hospitalisation and the following variables : the type of centre to which the patient was admitted (neurological, psychiatric or geriatric), impaired orientation on the MMS, BMI, the number of disabilities on the ADL, and caregiver burden as evaluated by the Zarit scale.

CONCLUSION: At inclusion, patients with more severe cognitive disorders, poor nutritional status and those who were the most dependent for basic activities of daily living were already at greater risk of hospitalisation. Exhaustion of the informal caregiver was an independent and supplementary predictive factor of hospitalisation.

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