Extended-field radiotherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy with concurrent and adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer: a phase I/II study

Yih-Lin Chung, James Jer-Min Jian, Skye Hongiun Cheng, Cheng-I Hsieh, Tran-Der Tan, Hui-Ju Chang, Chi-Feng Hung, Cheng-Fang Horng, Thomas Soong, Mei-Hua Tsou
Gynecologic Oncology 2005, 97 (1): 126-35

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the toxicity and efficacy of integrating extended-field para-aortic and pelvic external radiation, high-dose-rate intracavity brachytherapy, and concurrent and adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer.

METHOD: A phase I/II study was performed from 1998 to 2003 including sixty-three patients with both clinical FIGO and MRI/CT-based TNM stage IIB-IVA cervical cancer. Patients were treated with extended-field external radiation to the para-aortic and pelvic regions with 45 Gy in 25 fractions, and an additional boost to the gross nodes to 50.4 Gy and the parametrium to 59.4 Gy. Patients also received a high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavity brachytherapy with doses of 22-31 Gy to point A in 4-6 fractions. Concurrently, two cycles of cisplatin (50-80 mg/m(2)) were administered in weeks 1 and 5 during radiotherapy, as well as two cycles of cisplatin (60-80 mg/m(2)) for 1 day and 5-fluorouracil (600-800 mg/m(2)) for 4 days at 1 and 2 months after completion of radiotherapy. The treatment-related acute and late side effects were evaluated using RTOG criteria, and the disease control and survival rate were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The median follow-up interval was 36 months.

RESULTS: All sixty-three patients completed the planned extended-field radiotherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy with 2 concurrent cycles of cisplatin. Fifty-eight (92%) patients received 2 cycles of the post-radiation adjuvant chemotherapy of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. RTOG grade III acute toxicity was gastrointestinal (2%) and hematological (10%). No patient had grade IV acute toxicity. Late grades III-IV morbidity actuarial risk of 6% at 6.5 years primarily involved the injuries to the bowels requiring surgical intervention for intestinal obstruction or fistula formation. Initial sites of recurrence were locoregional failure alone (pelvic and para-aortic regions within the radiation field), 3%; distant metastases only, 8%; and locoregional failure plus distant metastases, 8%. The observed rates at 3-year and 5-year of locoregional control, freedom from distant metastasis, and overall survival were 86% and 86%, 81% and 81%, and 81% and 77%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Incorporating HDR brachytherapy into a regimen including concurrent chemotherapy and extended radiation appears safe and effective.

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