Thrombin-activated microglia contribute to death of dopaminergic neurons in rat mesencephalic cultures: dual roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways

Da Yong Lee, Young J Oh, Byung Kwan Jin
Glia 2005 August 1, 51 (2): 98-110
This study evaluated the role of thrombin-activated microglia in the neurodegeneration of mesencephalic cultures. Immunocytochemical and biochemical evidence indicated that in co-cultures consisting of rat cortical microglia and mesencephalic neurons, thrombin led to nonselective loss of mesencephalic neurons. Accompanying neurodegeneration, microglial activation was obvious, evidenced by expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and by increasing production of TNF-alpha and nitric oxide (NO). In mesencephalic neurons treated with conditioned media (CM) taken from thrombin-activated microglia, the number of dopaminergic neurons was significantly attenuated. The neurotoxicity of the CM was diminished when it was derived from microglia co-treated with thrombin and either an extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway inhibitor (PD98059) or a p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) inhibitor (SB203580). Moreover, jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK were activated in mesencephalic neurons treated with CM of thrombin-activated microglia. Inhibition of JNK and p38-MAPK rescued the dopaminergic neurons. Collectively, these results indicate that thrombin-activated microglia induce neurodegeneration in cultured mesencephalic neurons and that the MAPKs actively participate in both microglial activation and neurodegeneration. The present data carefully suggest that microglial activation triggered by thrombin may be involved in the neuropathological processes of dopaminergic neuronal cell death that occur in Parkinson's disease.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"