Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in postmenopausal south Indian women

C V Harinarayan
Osteoporosis International 2005, 16 (4): 397-402

AIM: To evaluate the dietary calcium and vitamin D status in south Indian postmenopausal women.

METHODS: Postmenopausal women (n = 164) were evaluated for their daily dietary calcium intake, phytate to calcium ratio, and bone mineral parameters. Their serum leutinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), and parathyroid hormone levels (PTH) were measured.

RESULTS: Their age and BMI were 59.5 +/- 8 years and 27 +/- 5 kg/m2, respectively. Their daily dietary intake of calcium was 323 +/- 66 mg/day; phytate to calcium ratio, 0.56+/-0.1; LH, 26 +/- 13.5 microIU/l; and FSH, 62.6 +/- 30 microIU/l. Their dietary intake of calcium was low compared with the recommended daily/dietary allowance (RDA) of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for the Indian population. Of the 164 patients studied, based on population-based reference values, 126 (77%) had normal 25(OH)D levels (9-37.6 ng/ml), and 38 (23%) had 25(OH)D deficiency. Using functional health-based reference values, 30 (18%) patients had normal 25(OH)D levels (> 20 ng/ml), 85 (52%) had 25(OH)D insufficiency (10-20 ng/ml), and 49(30%) had 25(OH)D deficiency (< 10 ng/ml). PTH and serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) was significantly high in patients with 25(OH)D deficiency (p < 0.05) compared with those with normal 25(OH)D levels. There was a negative correlation between 25(OH)D and PTH (r = -0.2; p < 0.007) and SAP (r = -0.2; p < 0.001). Dietary calcium correlated positively with dietary phosphates (r = 0.8; p < 0.001) and phytate to calcium ratio (r = 0.75; p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Population-based reference values underdiagnosed vitamin D insufficiency and overdiagnosed normal vitamin D status. The diet was insufficient in calcium and high in phytate. About 82% of the study group had varying degrees of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. The quality of diet has to be improved with enrichment/supplementation of calcium and vitamin D to suppress secondary hyperparathyroidism-induced bone loss and risk of fractures.


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Available on the App Store

Available on the Play Store
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"