Management of ovarian cysts with aspiration and methotrexate injection

Spyros Mesogitis, George Daskalakis, Athanasios Pilalis, Nikolaos Papantoniou, Nikolaos Thomakos, Nikolaos Dessipris, Panagiota Koutra, Aris Antsaklis
Radiology 2005, 235 (2): 668-73

PURPOSE: To evaluate prospectively ultrasonography (US)-guided cyst aspiration and methotrexate injection in the management of simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Authors obtained informed patient consent and approval from hospital ethics committee. Study included 162 female patients (aged 15-77 years) with simple or endometriotic ovarian cysts (3.0-10.6 cm) at a tertiary hospital. Criteria for inclusion in the study were (a) persistence of the cyst for at least 6 months, (b) benign appearance of the cyst at US, and (c) normal serum CA-125 level measurement before the procedure. Authors performed transabdominal aspiration of the cysts with direct US guidance and injection of methotrexate (30 mg). Cytologic examination was performed in all cases. Follow-up US was performed at 1, 3, and 6 months. If the cyst persisted, the procedure could be repeated. Main outcome measure was resolution or persistence of cysts. chi(2) Test or Mantel-Haentszel chi(2) tests for univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression were used for multivariate statistical analysis.

RESULTS: Of 162 patients, 148 were available for follow-up. Malignant cells were not found in any of the cases at cytologic examination. At follow-up US, cysts had disappeared in 124 patients (83.8%) and persisted in 24 (16.2%). Cyst diameter proved to be a significant prognostic factor for cyst resolution (P = .01). No major complications were observed. Patients received neither analgesia nor antibiotics.

CONCLUSION: US-guided transabdominal aspiration of cyst fluid and subsequent methotrexate injection appears to be an alternative treatment for both simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected cases.

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