JOURNAL ARTICLE

Chromosomal aberrations in normal human cells induced by the auger effect via Ca atoms

K Takakura, E Gotoh, A Sakano, A Funada, Y Kanasugi, A Okabe, K Kobayashi
International Journal of Radiation Biology 2004, 80 (11): 881-8
15764397

PURPOSE: To quantify the Auger effect on chromosomal aberrations via Ca atoms in human cells.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Exponentially growing human normal fibroblasts (GM05389) were irradiated with 4.047 (CaK-P), 4.026 (CaK-L) and 4.067 (CaK-H) keV X-rays (corresponding to the resonance absorption edge of the Ca K-shell and slightly below and slightly above the edge, respectively) using synchrotron radiation at the photon factory (PF) of the High Energy Accelerator Organization located in Tsukuba. Chromosomal aberrations induced by the irradiation were analyzed by the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) method using calyculin A. The dependency of the chromosomal aberrations on the incubation time post 2 Gy irradiation was observed for each energy. Irradiation using 200 kVp conventional X-rays was also examined as a reference to CaK irradiation.

RESULTS: (1) Soon after irradiation with 2Gy, the enhancement ratios of CaK-H X-rays to CaK-L X-rays were 1.21, 1.51 and 2.70 for breaks/gaps, isochromatid breaks and exchanges, respectively. The enhancement ratios of CaK-P X-rays to CaK-L X-rays were 1.82, 0.98 and 6.30, for breaks/gaps, isochromatid breaks and exchanges, respectively. (2) After a 6-hr incubation treatment post 2 Gy irradiation, the enhancement ratios of CaK-H X-rays to CaK-L X-rays were 1.59, 2.03 and 2.14 for breaks/gaps, isochromatid breaks and exchanges, respectively. The enhancement ratios of CaK-P X-rays to CaK-L X-rays were 1.69, 1.66 and 2.00 for breaks/gaps, isochromatid breaks and exchanges, respectively. (3) Soon after irradiation, the ratios of the efficiencies of CaK-P X-rays to those of 200 kVp X-rays were 1.74, 1.29 and 2.51 for breaks/gaps, isochromatid breaks and exchanges, respectively. And after a 6-hr incubation treatment, the ratios were 5.50, 1.93 and 1.81 for breaks/gaps, isochromatid breaks and exchanges, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: An effective enhancement of chromosomal aberrations, such as breaks/gaps, isochromatid breaks and exchanges, was caused by Ca K-shell ionization or excitation. Auger electrons emitted by Ca atoms in irradiated cells appear to have an important role in causing this enhancement. Comparing these efficiencies of chromosomal aberrations with those produced by 200 kVp conventional X-rays suggests un-repaired and complicated damage is induced by the X-rays around the Ca K-shell resonance absorption edge.

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