Biosynthesis of silicon-germanium oxide nanocomposites by the marine diatom Nitzschia frustulum

Gregory L Rorrer, Chih-Hung Chang, Shu-Hong Liu, Clayton Jeffryes, Jun Jiao, James A Hedberg
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2005, 5 (1): 41-9
The biomineralization capacity of the photosynthetic marine diatom Nitzschia frustulum was harnessed to fabricate Si-Ge oxide nanocomposite materials. Germanium was incorporated into the diatom cell by a two-stage cultivation process. In stage 1, the N. frustulum cell suspension was grown up to cell density of 3 x 10(6) cells/mL in 0.35 mM silicic acid within a bubble-column photobioreactor. In stage 2, when all of the soluble silicon was consumed, 0.10 mM Ge(OH)4 or a mixture of 0.020 mM Ge(OH)4 and 0.25 mM Si(OH)4 were added to Si-starved cells. The cells assimilated soluble germanium by a surge uptake mechanism. The cell mass was thermally annealed in air at 800 degrees C for 6 h to oxidize carbonaceous materials. The thermally annealed cell biomass was characterized by TEM-EDS, FT-IR, and XRD. These measurements confirmed the formation nanostructured Ge-Si oxides composed of CaSiO3 and Ca3GeO5.

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