Confirmatory and quantitative analysis of beta-lactam antibiotics in bovine kidney tissue by dispersive solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Clifton K Fagerquist, Alan R Lightfield, Steven J Lehotay
Analytical Chemistry 2005 March 1, 77 (5): 1473-82
A simple, rapid, rugged, sensitive, and specific method for the confirmation and quantitation of 10 beta-lactam antibiotics in fortified and incurred bovine kidney tissue has been developed. The method uses a simple solvent extraction, dispersive solid-phase extraction (dispersive-SPE) cleanup, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for confirmation and quantitation. Dispersive-SPE greatly simplifies and accelerates sample cleanup and improves overall recoveries compared with conventional SPE cleanup. The beta-lactam antibiotics tested were as follows: deacetylcephapirin (an antimicrobial metabolite of cephapirin), amoxicillin, desfuroylceftiofur cysteine disulfide (DCCD, an antimicrobial metabolite of ceftiofur), ampicillin, cefazolin, penicillin G, oxacillin, cloxacillin, naficillin, and dicloxacillin. Average recoveries of fortified samples were 70% or better for all beta-lactams except DCCD, which had an average recovery of 58%. The LC/MS/MS method was able to demonstrate quantitative recoveries at established tolerance levels and provide confirmatory data for unambiguous analyte identification. The method was also tested on 30 incurred bovine kidney samples obtained from the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service, which had previously tested the samples using the approved semiquantitative microbial assay. The results from the quantitative LC/MS/MS analysis were in general agreement with the microbial assay for 23 samples although the LC/MS/MS method was superior in that it could specifically identify which beta-lactam was present and quantitate its concentration, whereas the microbial assay could only identify the type of beta-lactam present and report a concentration with respect to the microbial inhibition of a penicillin G standard. In addition, for 6 of the 23 samples, LC/MS/MS analysis detected a penicillin and a cephalosporin beta-lactam, whereas the microbial assay detected only a penicillin beta-lactam. For samples that do not fall into the "general agreement" category, the most serious discrepancy involves two samples where the LC/MS/MS method detected a violative level of a cephalosporin beta-lactam (deacetylcephapirin) in the first sample and a possibly violative level of desfuroylceftiofur in the second, whereas the microbial assay identified the two samples as having only violative levels of a penicillin beta-lactam.

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