[Development of analysis of drugs and toxic substances that can play an immediate role in emergency medical service: what is to be analyzed?]

Atsuhisa Fukuda, Hiromi Ishida, Meri Kubota, Yoshitada Kojima
Rinsho Byori. the Japanese Journal of Clinical Pathology 2005, 53 (1): 26-33
Our laboratory was capable of analyzing less than 20 drugs and toxic substances at the time of the establishment of the Center in 1994. Since the poisoning crimes in 1998, such as the curry poisoning with arsenic in Wakayama, the sodium azide poisoning in Niigata, and the potassium cyanide poisoning in Nagano, we have introduced methods for rapid qualitative analysis of arsenic compounds, cyanides and azides, and developed methods for qualitative analysis of three types of surfactants (cationic, anionic, and nonionic) on the basis of the statistics for intoxication patients transferred to the Center. In 1999, the Analysis Method Investigation Committee of the Japanese Society for Clinical Toxicology requested individual medical institutions to analyze 15 selected intoxicating substances, focusing on the following three aspects. 1. Intoxication with a high degree of fatality. 2. Intoxication where analysis plays an immediate role in treatment. 3. Intoxication with a high frequency of requests by clinical physicians for analysis. The selected substances included methanol, barbital drugs, benzodiazepines, tricyclic or tetracyclic antidepressants, methamphetamine, acetaminophen, salicylic acid, bromovalerylurea, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate pesticides, paraquat, glufosinate, cyanides, arsenic, and theophylline. Responding to the Committee's request, out laboratory has been making efforts so that analysis of drugs and intoxicating substances can play an immediate role in emergency medical service, giving the highest priority to the aforementioned 15 substances. As a result, anyone of us can now rapidly analyze about 35 substances, including those listed by the Society, day and night.

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