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Rosacea: an update.

Rosacea is a common chronic cutaneous disorder of unknown etiology which occurs most commonly in middle-aged individuals. Cutaneous manifestations include transient or persistent facial erythema, telangiectasia, edema, papules and pustules that are usually confined to the central portion of the face. The National Rosacea Society's Expert Committee on the Classification and Staging of Rosacea identified four subtypes of rosacea: erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous and ocular. Recently, a standard grading system for assessing gradations of the severity of rosacea has been reported. Little is known about the cause of rosacea. Genetic, environmental, vascular, inflammatory factors and microorganisms such as Demodex folliculorum and Helicobacter pylori have been considered. Topical metronidazole and azelaic acid have been demonstrated to be effective treatments for rosacea. Severer or persistent cases may be treated with oral metronidazole, tetracyclines or isotretinoin.

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