Diagnosis and management of organic ovarian cysts: indications and procedures for laparoscopy

C Chapron, J B Dubuisson, X Fritel, D Rambaud
Human Reproduction Update 1996, 2 (5): 435-46
In the field of gynaecological surgery, the past few years have been significant due to the development of operative laparoscopy. Originally recommended for the diagnosis of female infertility, over the past 15 years laparoscopy has acquired the standing of a surgical discipline in its own right. Laparoscopic surgical treatment of ovarian cysts, whether conservative or radical, has now been completely standardized. The aim of this work is to specify the indications, procedures and risks involved with this surgery as applied to organic ovarian cysts. Only benign ovarian cysts are suitable for treatment by laparoscopic surgery; ovarian cancer must always be handled by classic surgery using a mid-line laparotomy. Given that clinical and other pre-operative investigations can give only an indication, ovarian lesions require surgical investigation to diagnose the histological type. Laparoscopy appears to be as reliable as laparotomy when assessing whether an ovarian tumour is malignant. The risk of parietal contamination and peritoneal dissemination if a malignancy is not recognized means that, if there are no signs of extra-ovarian extension, adnexectomy is mandatory whenever there is the slightest doubt. This adnexectomy must obey two important rules: it must be accomplished without rupturing the cyst, and the cyst must be placed, intact, inside an endoscopic bag before being extracted. Provided that all stages of the procedure, from pre-operative work-up to the initial diagnostic phase of the laparoscopy, are carried out meticulously, laparoscopic surgery is reliable for both the diagnosis and the management of benign organic-ovarian cysts.

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