COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE

Increased heparanase expression is caused by promoter hypomethylation and up-regulation of transcriptional factor early growth response-1 in human prostate cancer

Tatsuya Ogishima, Hiroaki Shiina, Julia E Breault, Laura Tabatabai, William W Bassett, Hideki Enokida, Long-Cheng Li, Toshifumi Kawakami, Shinji Urakami, Leopoldo A Ribeiro-Filho, Masaharu Terashima, Makoto Fujime, Mikio Igawa, Rajvir Dahiya
Clinical Cancer Research 2005 February 1, 11 (3): 1028-36
15709168

PURPOSE: Heparanase degrades heparan sulfate and has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. The transcription factor, early growth response 1 (EGR1), is associated with the inducible transcription of the heparanase gene. We hypothesize that CpG hypomethylation in the heparanase promoter coupled with up-regulation of EGR1 levels may induce heparanase expression in human prostate cancer.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Cultured prostate cancer cell lines (Du145, DuPro, LNCaP, and PC-3) with and without 5'-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment, 177 prostate cancer samples, and 69 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) samples were used. The frequency and level of heparanase promoter methylation were analyzed by methylation-specific primers which covered the core binding motif of EGR1 (GGCG) or SP1 (GGGCGG) or both.

RESULTS: In cultured Du145, DuPro, LNCaP, and PC-3 cell lines, mRNA transcripts of heparanase were significantly increased after 5'-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment, suggesting that promoter methylation was involved in the regulation of heparanase mRNA transcript. Significantly higher methylation was found in BPH samples than in prostate cancer samples (P < 0.0001), whereas mRNA transcripts of the heparanase gene were inversely lower in BPH samples than in prostate cancer samples (P < 0.01). EGR1 expression in prostate cancer tissues was significantly higher than in BPH tissues (P < 0.001) and correlated with heparanase expression (P < 0.0001). Moreover, multiple regression analysis revealed that up-regulation of EGR1 contributed significantly more to heparanase expression than did promoter CpG hypomethylation in prostate cancer samples (P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first comprehensive study demonstrating that increased heparanase expression in prostate cancer tissues is due to promoter hypomethylation and up-regulation of transcription factor EGR1.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
15709168
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"