IFN-alpha regulates TLR-dependent gene expression of IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IL-28, and IL-29

Jukka Sirén, Jaana Pirhonen, Ilkka Julkunen, Sampsa Matikainen
Journal of Immunology 2005 February 15, 174 (4): 1932-7
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate host cell activation by various microbial components. TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 are the receptors that have been associated with virus-induced immune response. We have previously reported that all these TLRs, except TLR9, are expressed at mRNA levels in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Here we have studied TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7/8 ligand-induced IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IL-28, and IL-29 expression in human macrophages. IFN-alpha pretreatment of macrophages was required for efficient TLR3 and TLR4 agonist-induced activation of IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IL-28, and IL-29 genes. TLR7/8 agonist weakly activated IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IL-28, and IL-29 genes, whereas TLR2 agonist was not able to activate these genes. IFN-alpha enhanced TLR responsiveness in macrophages by up-regulating the expression of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7. IFN-alpha also enhanced the expression of TLR signaling molecules MyD88, TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta, IkappaB kinase-epsilon, receptor interacting protein 1, and IFN regulatory factor 7. Furthermore, the activation of transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3 by TLR3 and TLR4 agonists was dependent on IFN-alpha pretreatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that IFN-alpha sensitizes cells to microbial recognition by up-regulating the expression of several TLRs as well as adapter molecules and kinases involved in TLR signaling.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"