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Mechanisms of hypoxic-ischemic injury in the term infant.

The pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the term infant is multifactorial and complex. Over the past decade the investigative emphasis has turned to cellular and molecular mechanisms of injury, and it has been increasingly recognized that the neonatal brain differs vastly from the adult brain in terms of response to hypoxia-ischemia. This review will discuss the initiation and evolution of brain injury in the term neonate, and the inherent biochemical and physiologic qualities of the neonatal brain that make its response to hypoxia-ischemia unique. Attention will be given to specific areas of investigation including excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The coalescence of these entities to a final common pathway of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury will be emphasized.

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