JOURNAL ARTICLE

Role of reactive oxygen species in TGF-beta1-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal tubular epithelial cells

Dong Young Rhyu, Yanqiang Yang, Hunjoo Ha, Geun Taek Lee, Jae Sook Song, Soo-taek Uh, Hi Bahl Lee
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN 2005, 16 (3): 667-75
15677311
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and TGF-beta1 is the key inducer of EMT. Phosphorylation of Smad proteins and/or mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) is required for TGF-beta1-induced EMT. Because reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in TGF-beta1 signaling and are upstream signaling molecules to MAPK, this study examined the role of ROS in TGF-beta1-induced MAPK activation and EMT in rat proximal tubular epithelial cells. Growth-arrested and synchronized NRK-52E cells were stimulated with TGF-beta1 (0.2 to 20 ng/ml) or H(2)O(2) (1 to 500 microM) in the presence or absence of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine or catalase), inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium and apocynin), mitochondrial electron transfer chain subunit I (rotenone), and MAPK (PD 98059, an MEK [MAP kinase/ERK kinase] inhibitor, or p38 MAPK inhibitor) for up to 96 h. TGF-beta1 increased dichlorofluorescein-sensitive cellular ROS, phosphorylated Smad 2, p38 MAPK, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) expression, and fibronectin secretion and decreased E-cadherin expression. Antioxidants effectively inhibited TGF-beta1-induced cellular ROS, phosphorylation of Smad 2, p38 MAPK, and ERK, and EMT. H(2)O(2) reproduced all of the effects of TGF-beta1 with the exception of Smad 2 phosphorylation. Chemical inhibition of ERK but not p38 MAPK inhibited TGF-beta1-induced Smad 2 phosphorylation, and both MAPK inhibitors inhibited TGF-beta1- and H(2)O(2)-induced EMT. Diphenyleneiodonium, apocynin, and rotenone also significantly inhibited TGF-beta1-induced ROS. Thus, this data suggest that ROS play an important role in TGF-beta1-induced EMT primarily through activation of MAPK and subsequently through ERK-directed activation of Smad pathway in proximal tubular epithelial cells.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
15677311
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"