[Decreased inspiratory time during ventilation of an unprotected airway. Effect on stomach inflation and lung ventilation in a bench model]

A von Goedecke, K Bowden, C Keller, W G Voelckel, H-C Jeske, V Wenzel
Der Anaesthesist 2005, 54 (2): 117-22

BACKGROUND: In an unprotected airway during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, two ventilations with an inspiratory time of 2 s after 15 chest compressions are recommended. Therefore, approximately 30% of the resuscitation attempt is spent on ventilation. Since survival rates did not decrease sharply when minute ventilation levels were relatively low, and uninterrupted chest compressions with a constant rate of approximately 100/min have been shown to be lifesaving, it may be beneficial to decrease the time spent on ventilation and instead, increase the time for chest compressions.

METHODS: In an established bench model of a simulated, unprotected airway with increased airway resistance, we evaluated if inspiratory time can be decreased from 2 to 1 s at different lower oesophageal sphincter pressure (LOSP) levels during ventilation with a bag-valve-mask device.

RESULTS: An inspiratory time of 2 vs. 1 s resulted in significantly lower peak airway pressure, while lung tidal volume was significantly higher at an inspiratory time of 2 s and a LOSP of 5 cm H(2)O (480+/-20 vs. 380+/-30 ml) and 10 cm H(2)O (630+/-50 vs. 440+/-20 ml) and significantly lower at a LOSP of 15 cm H(2)O (470+/-70 vs. 540+/-20 ml). While neither ventilation strategy produced stomach inflation at 20 cm H(2)O LOSP, 1 vs. 2 s inspiratory time produced significantly higher stomach inflation at 15 cm H(2)O LOSP (8+/-11 vs. 0 ml) and significantly lower stomach inflation at a LOSP of 5 cm H(2)O (359+/-31 vs. 375+/-29 ml) and 10 cm H(2)O (28+/-13 vs. 36+/-12 ml) per breath.

CONCLUSION: In this model of a simulated, unprotected airway, a reduction of inspiratory time from 2 to 1 s resulted in a significant increase of peak airway pressure, while lung tidal volumes and stomach inflation volumes were statistically different but clinically comparable.

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