[Potent neutralization antibody elicited in mice by SARS-associated coronavirus spike protein S1 domain]

Yun Zhang, Fan Yang, Yan-han Li, Wen-hui Li, Xin-ming Tu, Qiang Wei, Hua Zhu, Li Liu, Heng Wang, Chuan Qin, Guo-yong Yuan, Wei He, Shu-hui Wang
Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Virology 2004, 18 (3): 258-60

OBJECTIVE: To study the antigenicity of SARS associated coronavirus (CoV) spike S1 (12-672Aa) domain.

METHODS: BALB/c mice were immunized with a plasmid bearing codon-optimized SARS-CoV (Tor2 strain) S1 domain and then boosted with purified S1 protein; the SARS-CoV specific IgG antibody was tested by ELISA and neutralization antibody was determined by in vitro microneutralization assay.

RESULTS: S1 domain of SARS-CoV spike, which has been demonstrated harboring the receptor binding domain, successfully elicited SARS-CoV specific IgG antibody in mouse after combined immunization with DNA and purified S1 protein; the antibody elicited solely by S1 could potently neutralize SARS-CoV (HKU-39849) in vitro, 50% of 1 000 TCID50 SARS-CoV challenged cells were protected from viral infection by a 1:1499.68 dilution of mice sera immunized with S1 protein, but negative control sera showed no protection.

CONCLUSION: S1 domain of SARS-CoV spike protein, which is responsible for receptor binding, can efficiently and sufficiently induce highly potent neutralizing antibody in mice. This result suggested that S1 domain could be an effective subunit vaccines against SARS-CoV.

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