De-escalation therapy in ventilator-associated pneumonia

Jordi Rello, Loreto Vidaur, Alberto Sandiumenge, Alejandro Rodríguez, Belen Gualis, Carmen Boque, Emili Diaz
Critical Care Medicine 2004, 32 (11): 2183-90

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate de-escalation of antibiotic therapy in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia.

DESIGN: Prospective observational study during a 43-month period.

SETTING: Medical-surgical intensive care unit.

PATIENTS: One hundred and fifteen patients admitted to the intensive care unit with clinical diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. All the episodes of ventilator-associated pneumonia received initial broad-spectrum coverage followed by reevaluation according to clinical response and microbiology. Quantitative cultures obtained by bronchoscopic examination or tracheal aspirates were used to modify therapy.


MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-one episodes of ventilator-associated pneumonia were diagnosed. Change of therapy was documented in 56.2%, including de-escalation (the most frequent cause) in 31.4% (increasing to 38% if isolates were sensitive). Overall intensive care unit mortality rate was 32.2%. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy was identified in 9% of cases and was associated with 14.4% excess intensive care unit mortality. Quantitative tracheal aspirates and bronchoscopic samples (58 protected specimen brush and three bronchoalveolar lavage) were associated with 32.7% and 29.5% intensive care unit mortality and 29.3% and 34.4% de-escalation rate. De-escalation was lower (p < .05) in the presence of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacillus (2.7% vs. 49.3%) and in the presence of late-onset pneumonia (12.5% vs. 40.7%). When the pathogen remained unknown, half of the patients died and de-escalation was not performed.

CONCLUSION: De-escalation was the most important cause of antibiotic modification, being more feasible in early-onset pneumonia and less frequent in the presence of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacillus. The impact of quantitative tracheal aspirates or bronchoscopic techniques was comparable in terms of mortality.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"