Rosiglitazone improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

Yi-Jen Hung, Chang-Hsun Hsieh, Dee Pei, Shi-Wen Kuo, Jiunn-Tay Lee, Ling-Yi Wu, Chih-Tsueng He, Chien Hsing Lee, Sandra Chyi Fan, Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu
Clinical Endocrinology 2005, 62 (1): 85-91

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of rosiglitazone (ROS) on insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and glycaemic response to glucose challenge and meal in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).

METHODS: Thirty patients with IGT (ages between 30 and 75 years and BMI (body mass index) < or = 27 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n = 15) or ROS (4 mg/day) (n = 15). All participants underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), meal test, and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) before and after the 12-week treatment.

RESULTS: After 12 weeks of ROS treatment, there were significant increases in total cholesterol (TC) (4.25 +/- 0.22 vs 4.80 +/- 0.17 mmol/l, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (1.25 +/- 0.07 vs 1.43 +/- 0.06 mmol/l, P < 0.05), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (2.70 +/- 0.15 vs 3.37 +/- 0.17 mmol/l, P < 0.05) without changes in triglyceride concentration, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Although the acute insulin response (AIR) to intravenous glucose and disposition index (measured as the ability of pancreatic beta-cell compensation in the presence of insulin resistance) remained unchanged, the insulin sensitivity (SI) and glucose effectiveness (SG) were remarkably elevated (0.38 +/- 0.06 vs 0.54 +/- 0.09 x 10(-5) min(-1)/pmol, P < 0.05; 0.017 +/- 0.002 vs 0.021 +/- 0.001 min(-1), P < 0.05, respectively) in the ROS group. The glucose, insulin, and c-peptide areas under curve (AUC) in response to OGTT and the glucose and insulin AUC during meal were significantly ameliorated in the ROS group. Five out of 15 (33%) and two out of 15 (13%) subjects treated with ROS and placebo, respectively, reversed to normal response during OGTT (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Rosiglitazone treatment significantly improved insulin resistance and reduced postchallenge glucose and insulin concentrations in patients with impaired glucose tolerance without remarkable effects on beta-cell secretory function.

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