Human CD4+ effector memory T cells persisting in the microenvironment of lung cancer xenografts are activated by local delivery of IL-12 to proliferate, produce IFN-gamma, and eradicate tumor cells

Lori Broderick, Sandra J Yokota, Joshua Reineke, Edith Mathiowitz, Carleton C Stewart, Maurice Barcos, Raymond J Kelleher, Richard B Bankert
Journal of Immunology 2005 January 15, 174 (2): 898-906
The implantation of small pieces of human primary lung tumor biopsy tissue into SCID mice results in a viable s.c. xenograft in which the tissue architecture, including tumor-associated leukocytes, tumor cells, and stromal cells, is preserved in a functional state. By monitoring changes in tumor volume, gene expression patterns, cell depletion analysis, and the use of function-blocking Abs, we previously established in this xenograft model that exogenous IL-12 mobilizes human tumor-associated leukocytes to kill tumor cells in situ by indirect mechanisms that are dependent upon IFN-gamma. In this study immunohistochemistry and FACS characterize the early cellular events in the tumor microenvironment induced by IL-12. By 5 days post-IL-12 treatment, the constitutively present human CD45(+) leukocytes have expanded and infiltrated into tumor-rich areas of the xenograft. Two weeks post-treatment, there is expansion of the human leukocytes and complete effacement of the tumor compared with tumor progression and gradual loss of most human leukocytes in control-treated xenografts. Immunohistochemical analyses reveal that the responding human leukocytes are primarily activated or memory T cells, with smaller populations of B cells, macrophages, plasma cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells capable of producing IFN-alpha. The predominant cell population was also characterized by FACS and was shown to have a phenotype consistent with a CD4(+) effector memory T cell. We conclude that quiescent CD4(+) effector memory T cells are present within the tumor microenvironment of human lung tumors and can be reactivated by the local and sustained release of IL-12 to proliferate and secrete IFN-gamma, leading to tumor cell eradication.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"