Electrical detection of biomolecular interactions with metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes

P Estrela, P Migliorato, H Takiguchi, H Fukushima, S Nebashi
Biosensors & Bioelectronics 2005 February 15, 20 (8): 1580-6
We report the label-free detection of DNA hybridization using a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diode or capacitor. Upon immobilization of single-stranded DNA on the gold gate of a MIS capacitor, the capacitance versus voltage characteristics show a significant shift in the direction of negative voltages as expected from the immobilization of negative charges on the gate. The hybridization with the complementary strand gives rise to a further significant shift in the same direction as before, which is consistent with the increase of negative charges on the gate brought about by the hybridization. Fluorescence studies indicate that the immobilization and hybridization of DNA can be electrostatically promoted by electric fields externally applied to the MIS capacitors. The MIS diode detection method is applicable to all biomolecular interactions that affect the surface dipole at the interface between the metal gate and the electrolyte and can be extended to other chemical and biochemical systems such as proteins and cells.

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