JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

The urothelium in overactive bladder: passive bystander or active participant?

William C de Groat
Urology 2004, 64 (6 Suppl 1): 7-11
15621221
The urothelium was once purported to be a passive membrane. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that the urothelium actively participates in sensory functions, expressing various receptors and ion channels, as well as releasing neurotransmitters in response to stimuli. Vanilloid receptors, P2X3 purinergic receptors, adenosine triphosphate, nitric oxide, and acetylcholine have been implicated in urothelial-neuronal interactions. Substances released from urothelial cells can alter the excitability of bladder afferent nerves acutely and chronically; these observations appear to be of particular importance in chronic bladder conditions and in the aging bladder. Evidence suggests that the involvement of the muscarinic receptor in bladder function extends beyond detrusor contractility and into afferent sensory functioning. These observations have significant implications for a more complete understanding of the effects of currently used drugs on these sensory mechanisms and for identifying potential targets for pharmacologic intervention in bladder disorders.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
15621221
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.