Exercise ventilation inefficiency and cardiovascular mortality in heart failure: the critical independent prognostic value of the arterial CO2 partial pressure

Marco Guazzi, Giuseppe Reina, Gabriele Tumminello, Maurizio D Guazzi
European Heart Journal 2005, 26 (5): 472-80

AIMS: In chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, the ventilation (Ve) needed to eliminate metabolically produced CO(2) during exercise (i.e. the Ve/Vco(2) slope) is a strong prognosticator. Ve/Vco(2) slope determinants are the dead space-tidal volume (Vd/Vt) ratio and the arterial CO(2) partial pressure (Paco(2)). We aimed at defining the respective prognostic role of these two variables.

METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-eight stable CHF patients (average left ventricular ejection fraction 34+/-10%) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and blood gas analysis. The prognostic relevance of the Ve/Vco(2) slope, Vd/Vt, and Paco(2) at peak exercise was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier approach with log-rank testing and by multivariate Cox regression analysis. During a mean period of 31.3+/-20 months, 24 patients died from cardiac causes. In univariate analysis, predictors of death included the use of anti-aldosterone drugs, low peak Vo(2), peak Ve/Vo(2), peak Paco(2) and high Ve/Vco(2) slope, and peak Vd/Vt. Multivariate analysis identified a low peak Paco(2) (<35 mmHg) as the strongest independent prognostic indicator [hazard ratio 4.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.695-12.751), P=0.003] that primarily accounts for the Ve/Vco(2) slope prognostic power.

CONCLUSION: These findings imply that regulatory mechanisms involved in the tight control of ventilatory command and blood gas tension, rather than lung function abnormalities, play a critical pathophysiological role in the exercise ventilation inefficiency of CHF patients.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"