RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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CDC/AHA Workshop on Markers of Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease: Application to Clinical and Public Health Practice: clinical use of inflammatory markers in patients with cardiovascular diseases: a background paper.

Circulation 2004 December 22
Inflammation is a recognized key component of acute coronary syndromes. Such pathogenetic achievement has led to the use of inflammatory cells and proteins as prognostic markers in these syndromes. A number of markers have been proposed, including proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, interleukin-1RA, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, adhesion molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular adhesion molecule-1 and markers of cell activation. Although all are of scientific interest, the clinical use of these markers is limited by their high cost, low availability, and unfavorable biological profile. Conversely, common markers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein (CRP), the prototypic acute phase protein, and to a lesser extent fibrinogen, have been proven to be reliable and important markers of risk in ischemic heart disease. CRP, in particular, has been found to be associated with short- and long-term prognosis in acute coronary syndromes, including ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and in stable angina, and to predict the risk of restenosis and major events, including death, after revascularization procedures. CRP has been consistently found to be independent from other risk factors and to have an incremental value beyond the common risk factors and biochemical markers of risk, including troponin. Whether CRP also should be used as a guide to therapy is still a matter of discussion that deserves further, properly designed studies.

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