In vitro and in vivo evaluation of differentially demineralized cancellous bone scaffolds combined with human bone marrow stromal cells for tissue engineering

Joshua R Mauney, Claude Jaquiéry, Vladimir Volloch, Michael Heberer, Ivan Martin, David L Kaplan
Biomaterials 2005, 26 (16): 3173-85
Mineralized and partially or fully demineralized biomaterials derived from bovine bone matrix were evaluated for their ability to support human bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone-forming capacity in vivo in order to assess their potential use in clinical tissue-engineering strategies. BMSCs were either seeded on bone-derived scaffolds and cocultured in direct cell-to-scaffold contact, allowing for the exposure of soluble and insoluble matrix-incorporated factors, or cocultured with the scaffold preparations in a transwell system, exposing them to soluble matrix-incorporated factors alone. Osteoblast-related markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OP) mRNA expression were evaluated in BMSCs following 14 days of cocultivation in both systems. The data demonstrate that BMSCs from some donors express significantly higher levels of all osteoblast-related markers following cocultivation in direct cell-to-scaffold contact with mineralized scaffolds in comparison to fully demineralized preparations, while BMSCs from other donors display no significant differences in response to various scaffold preparations. In contrast, BMSCs cocultured independently with soluble matrix-incorporated factors derived from each scaffold preparation displayed significantly lower levels of ALP activity and BSP mRNA expression in comparison to untreated controls, while no significant differences were observed in marker levels between cells cocultured similarly with different biomaterial preparations. In addition, BMSCs were seeded directly on mineralized and partially or fully demineralized biomaterials and implanted in subcutaneous sites of athymic mice for 8 weeks to evaluate their in vivo bone-forming capacity. The ex vivo incorporation of BMSCs into all bone-derived scaffold preparations substantially increased the mean extent and frequency of samples containing de novo bone formation over similar nonseeded controls, as determined by histological and histomorphometrical analysis. No statistically significant differences were observed in the extent or frequency of bone formation between various scaffold preparations seeded with BMSCs from different donors. These results demonstrate that the in vivo osteoinductivity of bone-derived scaffolds can be modulated by ex vivo incorporated BMSCs and the extent of scaffold demineralization plays a significant role in influencing in vitro osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs depending on the coculture system and BMSC donor.

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