Joint effects of physical activity, body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio with the risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged Finnish men and women

Gang Hu, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Karri Silventoinen, Nöel Barengo, Pekka Jousilahti
European Heart Journal 2004, 25 (24): 2212-9

AIMS: To assess joint associations of physical activity and different indicators of obesity (body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio) with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

METHODS AND RESULTS: The study comprised 18,892 Finnish men and women aged 25-74 years without history of coronary heart disease, stroke, or heart failure at baseline. Physical activity, different indicators of obesity, education, smoking, blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and history of diabetes were measured at baseline. An incident CVD event was defined as the first stroke or coronary heart disease event or CVD death based on national hospital discharge and mortality register data. The median follow-up time was 9.8 years. Physical activity had a strong, independent, and inverse association with CVD risk in both genders. All obesity indicators had a significant direct association with CVD risk after adjustment for age, smoking, education and physical activity. Further adjustment for the obesity-related risk factors weakened the associations and they remained statistically significant in men only. Physical activity and the obesity indicators both predicted CVD risk in men, but in women the joint effect was inconsistent.

CONCLUSION: Both regular physical activity and normal weight can reduce the risk of CVD. Physical inactivity seems to have an independent effect on CVD risk, whereas obesity increases the risk partly through the modification of other risk factors.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"