Familial risk factors to oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: parental psychopathology and maternal parenting

P J Frick, B B Lahey, R Loeber, M Stouthamer-Loeber, M A Christ, K Hanson
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1992, 60 (1): 49-55
In a sample of 177 clinic-referred children aged 7-13, an association was found between a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) and several aspects of family functioning: maternal parenting (supervision and persistence in discipline) and parental adjustment (paternal antisocial personality disorder and paternal substance abuse). Children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were intermediate to families of children with CD and clinic control children on all variables, but differed from control children only in having a higher rate of paternal substance abuse and paternal antisocial personality disorder (APD). When both parental APD and deviant maternal parenting were entered into 2 x 2 logit-model analyses predicting CD, only parental APD was significantly associated with CD, and no interactions between parental adjustment and maternal parenting were found. The importance of these findings for understanding the etiology of CD and for disentangling correlated risk factors in future studies is discussed.

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