Effects of rosglitazone on plasma adiponectin, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in high-risk African Americans with impaired glucose tolerance test and type 2 diabetes

Kwame Osei, Trudy Gaillard, June Kaplow, Matthew Bullock, Dara Schuster
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 2004, 53 (12): 1552-7
We examined the metabolic effects of rosiglitazone therapy on glucose control, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and adiponectin in first-degree relatives of African Americans with type 2 diabetes (DM) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and DM for 3 months. The study was comprised of 12 first-degree relatives with IGT, 17 newly diagnosed DM, and 19 healthy relatives with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and after 3 months of rosiglitazone therapy (4 to 8 mg/d) in patients with IGT and DM. Serum glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and adiponectin levels were measured before and 2 hours during OGTT in the NGT and patients with IGT and DM. Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA-%B) were calculated in each subject using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Rosglitazone improved the overall glycemic control in the IGT and DM groups. Following rosiglitazone, the beta-cell secretion remained unchanged, while HOMR-IR was reduced in DM by 30% (4.12 +/- 1.95 v 6.33 +/- 3.54, P < .05) and the IGT group (3.78 +/- 2.45 v 4.81 +/- 3.49, P = not significant [NS]). Mean plasma adiponectin levels were significantly (P < .05) lower in the DM (6.74 +/- 1.95 microg/mL) when compared with the NGT group(9.61 +/- 5.09). Rosiglitazone significantly (P < .001) increased adiponectin levels by 2-fold in patients with IGT (22.2 +/- 10.97 microg/mL) and 2.5-fold greater in DM (15.68 +/- 8.23 microg/mL) at 3 months when compared with the 0 month. We conclude that adiponectin could play a significant role (1) in the pathogenesis of IGT and DM and (2) the beneficial metabolic effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) in high-risk African American patients.

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