Alterations of paraoxonase and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activities in patients on peritoneal dialysis

Evagelos N Liberopoulos, Eleni Papavasiliou, George A Miltiadous, Marios Cariolou, Kostas C Siamopoulos, Alexandros D Tselepis, Moses S Elisaf
Peritoneal Dialysis International 2004, 24 (6): 580-9

OBJECTIVE: The more atherogenic lipid profile seen in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients cannot fully explain the increased incidence of atherosclerosis in this population. Oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is considered to play a central role in the atherogenic process, whereas high-density lipoprotein (HDL) protects LDL from oxidation. On the other hand, it has been suggested that the LDL and HDL of PD patients are more resistant to oxidation than those of control subjects, while PD-HDL equally protects LDL from oxidation compared to control-HDL. Two HDL-associated enzymes have been shown to protect both LDL and HDL from oxidation: paraoxonase (PON1) and HDL-associated platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (HDL-PAF-AH). Furthermore, low PON1 activity and high total plasma PAF-AH concentration, which represents mainly the LDL-associated enzyme, have been shown to be independent risk factors for coronary artery events in the general population. However, there are limited data regarding possible alterations of these enzymes in PD patients. The aim of our study was to examine the possible alterations of PON1 and PAF-AH activities in patients undergoing PD.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.

SETTING: A university medical center.

PARTICIPANTS: 56 PD patients of Caucasian origin and 86 matched controls were studied.

MEASUREMENTS: In all subjects, serum PON1 activity toward paraoxon (paraoxonase) and phenylacetate (arylesterase), as well as total serum and HDL-PAF-AH activities were measured; PON1 genetic polymorphisms known to influence PON1 activity (Q192R and M55L) were determined.

RESULTS: The PD patients exhibited significantly increased serum PON1 (paraoxonase) and PON1 (arylesterase) activities compared to controls, regardless of the PON1 polymorphisms or the levels of HDL cholesterol. Additionally, PD patients had significantly elevated activities of total serum PAF-AH and HDL-PAF-AH, independently of the levels of LDL or HDL cholesterol. The ratio of HDL-PAF-AH/ total PAF-AH, which has recently been suggested to be a potential marker of atherogenicity, was decreased in these patients compared to controls. Moreover, no difference in the prevalence of PON1 polymorphisms between PD patients and controls was found.

CONCLUSION: The elevated activities of PON1 and HDL-PAF-AH could explain the increased resistance of PD-HDL to oxidation; the higher activity of total PAF-AH and the decreased HDL-PAF-AH/ total PAF-AH ratio could contribute to the increased incidence of atherosclerosis in these patients.

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