SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
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Mechanical ventilation in sepsis-induced acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome: an evidence-based review.

OBJECTIVE: In 2003, critical care and infectious disease experts representing 11 international organizations developed management guidelines for mechanical ventilation in sepsis-induced acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that would be of practical use for the bedside clinician, under the auspices of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign, an international effort to increase awareness and improve outcome in severe sepsis.

DESIGN: The process included a modified Delphi method, a consensus conference, several subsequent smaller meetings of subgroups and key individuals, teleconferences, and electronic-based discussion among subgroups and among the entire committee.

METHODS: The modified Delphi methodology used for grading recommendations built on a 2001 publication sponsored by the International Sepsis Forum. We undertook a systematic review of the literature graded along five levels to create recommendation grades from A to E, with A being the highest grade. Pediatric considerations to contrast adult and pediatric management are in the article by Parker et al. on p. S591.

CONCLUSION: A minimum amount of positive end-expiratory pressure should be set to prevent lung collapse at end expiration in ARDS. Setting the level of positive end-expiratory pressure may be guided by Fio2 requirement or measurement of thoracopulmonary compliance. Role of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in acute lung injury/ARDS is undefined. Small tidal volume ventilation and limitation of end-inspiratory plateau pressure is important in the management of ARDS and may be facilitated by permissive hypercapnia. Prone positioning should be considered in the severest of ARDS patients. The ideal fluid management strategy in ARDS is unknown. Weaning protocols should be in place that include spontaneous breathing trials and criteria for initiating such trials. The role of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and airway pressure release ventilation in ARDS is uncertain.

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