JOURNAL ARTICLE

Tumor necrosis factor alpha induces human atrial myofibroblast proliferation, invasion and MMP-9 secretion: inhibition by simvastatin

Karen E Porter, Neil A Turner, David J O'Regan, Stephen G Ball
Cardiovascular Research 2004 December 1, 64 (3): 507-15
15537504

OBJECTIVE: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is implicated in myocardial remodeling, a process in which activated cardiac fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) secrete matrix-degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs) and undergo increased proliferation and invasion. Statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs that also have direct cellular effects, which may underlie their ability to reduce myocardial remodeling. This study investigated the effect of TNFalpha on human cardiac myofibroblast proliferation, invasion and MMP-9 secretion, and determined whether these properties were modulated by simvastatin.

METHODS: Human cardiac myofibroblasts were cultured from right atrial appendage. TNF receptor expression was quantified by immunoblotting. Cell proliferation, invasion, MMP-9 secretion and MMP-9 mRNA expression were determined by cell counting, Matrigel-coated modified Boyden chamber assays, gelatin zymography and RT-PCR, respectively.

RESULTS: Human atrial myofibroblasts expressed the TNF-RI and TNF-RII receptor subtypes. TNFalpha (1 ng/ml) induced a 23.1+/-3.9% increase in cell number after 4 days (P<0.001). Additionally, TNFalpha (1-10 ng/ml) significantly (P<0.01) increased myofibroblast invasion, with a concomitant increase in MMP-9 secretion, that was due to increased MMP-9 mRNA levels. Using TNF-R-specific neutralizing antibodies, we determined that these cellular effects of TNFalpha were predominantly TNF-RI-mediated. Simvastatin (0.1-10 mumol/l) concentration dependently inhibited TNFalpha-induced myofibroblast proliferation, invasion and MMP-9 secretion.

CONCLUSIONS: TNFalpha, acting predominantly via the TNF-R1 receptor, increased human atrial myofibroblast proliferation, invasion and MMP-9 secretion, all of which were inhibited by simvastatin. Inhibition of cytokine-induced cardiac myofibroblast activation by statins provides a rationale for their use in patients with cardiac pathologies characterized by adverse myocardial remodeling.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
15537504
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"