Chronic peritoneal dialysis catheters in children: a fifteen-year experience of the Italian Registry of Pediatric Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis

Stefano Rinaldi, Francesco Sera, Enrico Verrina, Alberto Edefonti, Bruno Gianoglio, Francesco Perfumo, Palma Sorino, Graziella Zacchello, Ignazio Cutaia, Giancarlo Lavoratti, Giovanna Leozappa, Carmine Pecoraro, Gianfranco Rizzoni et al.
Peritoneal Dialysis International 2004, 24 (5): 481-6

OBJECTIVE: To analyze data on 503 chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) catheters implanted between 1986 and 2000 in pediatric patients enrolled in the Italian Registry of Pediatric Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis (the Registry), comparing three different time periods: 1986-1990, 1991-1995, and 1996-2000.

DESIGN: Retrospective study.

SETTING: 23 dialysis centers participating in the Registry.

METHODS: Data were collected from questionnaires filled in every year. The information for each peritoneal catheter included type, site and technique of insertion, exit-site orientation, exit-site care, complications, survival, and reason for removal.

PATIENTS: 503 catheters were implanted in 363 pediatric patients aged younger than 15 years at the start of CPD: 97 catheters in patients under 2 years of age, 67 in patients aged 2-5 years, and 339 in patients over 5 years of age. Mean patient age at onset of CPD was 8.0 +/- 5.1 years. All catheters were surgically implanted and omentectomy was performed in 82.4% of cases. The catheters used were Tenckhoff [468 (93.0%): 443 double cuff, 25 single cuff] and double-cuffed Valli [35 (7.0%)]. The entry site was in the midline in 153 cases (30.4%) and paramedian in 350 (69.6%).

RESULTS: During 9048 dialysis-months we observed 451 catheter-related complications, yielding an incidence of 1 episode/20.1 CPD-months: 330 catheter infections (exit-site and/or tunnel infections), 26 leakages, 26 dislocations, 24 obstructions, 22 cuff extrusions, 6 hemoperitoneums, 17 others. 171 catheters were removed due to catheter-related causes; exit-site and/or tunnel infections were the main cause for removal (75.4%), followed by obstruction, dislocation, outer-cuff extrusion, and leakage. Younger children (< 2 years) had a higher risk of infectious causes of catheter removal compared to children aged 2-5 years (p = 0.004) and over 5 years of age (p = 0.002). During the 15-year observation period, a significant reduction in the incidence of leakage was observed and risk of leakage was lower in catheters with paramedian entry site compared to catheters with midline entry site. Removal and replacement of peritoneal catheters during the same surgical operation was performed in 76.3% of catheter removals. Catheter survival rate was 78.1% at 12 months, 58.5% at 24 months, 43.8% at 36 months, and 34.6% at 48 months. No difference in catheter survival was observed in younger children (< 2 years) compared with the two other age groups: < 2 years versus 2-5 years hazard ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 0.4-1.2; < 2 years versus > 5 years hazard ratio 0.8, 95%CI 0.5-1.1.

CONCLUSIONS: In this survey, we observed better catheter survival in comparison with data reported by the Registry in 1998. Catheter survival improved especially in younger children (< 2 years), a group that previously had a decreased catheter survival rate compared to older age groups. In addition to the progressive increase in experience acquired by dialysis centers, this upward trend may also be related to greater use of double-cuffed catheters, with paramedian exit site, and a higher frequency of omentectomy.

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