The 15-deoxy-delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 inhibits the inflammatory response in primary rat astrocytes via down-regulating multiple steps in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-NF-kappaB-p300 pathway independent of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

Shailendra Giri, Ramandeep Rattan, Avtar K Singh, Inderjit Singh
Journal of Immunology 2004 October 15, 173 (8): 5196-208
Ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), such as 15-deoxy-12,14-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2), have been proposed as a new class of anti-inflammatory compounds because 15d-PGJ2 was able to inhibit the induction of inflammatory response genes such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and TNF (TNF-alpha) in a PPAR-dependent manner in various cell types. In primary astrocytes, the anti-inflammatory effects (inhibition of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and iNOS gene expression) of 15d-PGJ2 are observed to be independent of PPARgamma. Overexpression (wild-type and dominant-negative forms) of PPARgamma and its antagonist (GW9662) did not alter the 15d-PGJ2-induced inhibition of LPS/IFN-gamma-mediated iNOS and NF-kappaB activation. The 15d-PGJ2 inhibited the inflammatory response by inhibiting IkappaB kinase activity, which leads to the inhibition of degradation of IkappaB and nuclear translocation of p65, thereby regulating the NF-kappaB pathway. Moreover, 15d-PGJ2 also inhibited the LPS/IFN-gamma-induced PI3K-Akt pathway. The 15d-PGJ2 inhibited the recruitment of p300 by NF-kappaB (p65) and down-regulated the p300-mediated induction of iNOS and NF-kappaB luciferase reporter activity. Coexpression of constitutive active Akt and PI3K (p110) reversed the 15d-PGJ2-mediated inhibition of p300-induced iNOS and NF-kappaB luciferase activity. This study demonstrates that 15d-PGJ2 suppresses inflammatory response by inhibiting NF-kappaB signaling at multiple steps as well as by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway independent of PPARgamma in primary astrocytes.

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