Catheter-related interventions to prevent peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis: a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials

Giovanni F M Strippoli, Allison Tong, David Johnson, Francesco P Schena, Jonathan C Craig
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN 2004, 15 (10): 2735-46
As many as 15 to 50% of end-stage kidney disease patients are on peritoneal dialysis (PD), but peritonitis limits its more widespread use. Several PD catheter-related interventions (catheter designs, surgical insertion approaches, and connection methods) have been purported to reduce the risk of peritonitis in PD. The goal was to assess the trial evidence supporting their use. The Cochrane CENTRAL Registry, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and reference lists were searched for randomized trials of catheter types and related interventions in PD. Two reviewers extracted data on the rates of peritonitis and exit-site/tunnel infection, catheter removal/replacement, technique failure, and all-cause mortality. Analysis was by a random effects model, and results are expressed as relative risk and 95% confidence intervals. Thirty-seven eligible trials (2822 patients) were identified: eight of surgical strategies of catheter insertion, eight of straight versus coiled catheters, 10 of Y-set versus conventional spike systems, four of Y-set versus double-bag systems, and seven of other interventions. Despite the large total number of patients, few trials covered the same interventions, small numbers of patients were enrolled in each trial, and the methodologic quality was suboptimal. Y-set and twin-bag systems were superior to conventional spike systems (seven trials, 485 patients; relative risk, 0.64; 95% confidence intervals 0.53 to 0.77), and no other catheter-related intervention was demonstrated to prevent peritonitis in PD. This systematic review demonstrates that of all catheter-related interventions designed to prevent peritonitis in PD, only disconnect (twin-bag and Y-set) systems have been proved to be effective (compared with conventional spike systems). Despite the importance of PD as a renal replacement therapy modality and the large number of patients who receive it, it is still not known whether any particular PD catheter designs, implantation techniques, or modalities are effective, given the limitations of available trials.

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