Effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor inducer on left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction

Yuichiro Maekawa, Toshihisa Anzai, Tsutomu Yoshikawa, Yasuo Sugano, Keitaro Mahara, Takashi Kohno, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Satoshi Ogawa
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2004 October 6, 44 (7): 1510-20

OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the influence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induction on post-myocardial infarction (MI) remodeling, especially in relation to the inflammatory response and myocardial fibrosis.

BACKGROUND: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor modifies wound healing by promoting monocytopoiesis and infiltration of monocytes and macrophages into injured tissue; however, the effect of GM-CSF induction on the infarct healing process and myocardial fibrosis is unclear.

METHODS: A model of MI was produced in Wistar rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. The MI animals were randomized to receive GM-CSF inducer (romurtide 200 microg/kg/day for 7 consecutive days) (MI/Ro) or saline (MI/C).

RESULTS: Echocardiographic and hemodynamic studies on day 14 revealed increased left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic dimension, decreased fractional shortening, elevated LV end-diastolic pressure, and decreased LV maximum rate of isovolumic pressure development in MI/Ro compared with MI/C. Immunoblotting showed that expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 in the infarcted site on day 3 after MI was decreased in MI/Ro compared with MI/C. In the infarcted site, TGF-beta1, collagen type I and type III messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression on day 3, and collagen content on day 7 were reduced in MI/Ro compared with MI/C, in association with marked infarct expansion. In MI/Ro, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA level and the degree of infiltration of monocyte-derived macrophages (ED-1-positive)were greater in the infarcted site on day 7 than those in MI/C.

CONCLUSIONS: The GM-CSF induction by romurtide facilitated infarct expansion in association with the promotion of monocyte recruitment and inappropriate collagen synthesis in the infarcted region during the early phase of MI.

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