Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an Indian urban population

Rajeev Gupta, Prakash C Deedwania, Arvind Gupta, Shweta Rastogi, Raja B Panwar, Kunal Kothari
International Journal of Cardiology 2004, 97 (2): 257-61

OBJECTIVES: To determine prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using United States Adult Treatment Panel-3 (ATP-3) guidelines in an urban Indian population.

METHODS: Randomly selected adults >20 years were studied using stratified sampling. Target study sample was 1800 with population proportionate distribution (men 960, women 840). Evaluation of anthropometric variables, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids was performed. Subjects (1123; response 62.4%) were examined, fasting blood samples were available in 1091 (532 men, 559 women) and analysed for prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Atherosclerosis risk factors were determined using the current guidelines. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed when any three of the following were present: central obesity, raised triglycerides >/=150 mg/dl (>/=1.7 mmol/l), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, blood pressure >/=130/>/=85 mm Hg, and diabetes or fasting glucose >110 mg/dl (>6.1 mmol/l). Intergroup comparisons were performed using t-test or chi-square test.

RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was present in 345 (31.6%) subjects; prevalence was 122 (22.9%) in men and 223 (39.9%) in women (p<0.001); the age-adjusted prevalence was 24.9%, 18.4% in men and 30.9% in women. There was a significant age-related increase in its prevalence (Mantel-Haenzel chi(2) for trend p<0.05). Prevalence of components of metabolic syndrome in men and women was: central obesity (waist, men >102 cm, women >88 cm) in 116 (25.6%) and 246 (44.0%); low HDL cholesterol (men<40 mg/dl, <1.0 mmol/l), women<50 mg/dl, <1.3 mmol/l) in 292 (54.9%) and 504 (90.2%); high triglycerides >/=150 mg/dl (>/=1.7 mmol/l) in 172 (32.3%) and 160 (28.6%); and impaired fasting glucose or diabetes in 90 (16.9%) and 90 (16.1%). The prevalence of physical inactivity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia (>/=200 mg/dl, >/=5.2 mmol/l) and high LDL cholesterol (>/=130 mg/dl, >/=3.4 mmol/l) was greater in the metabolic syndrome group in both men and women (p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an urban Indian population. Focus of cardiovascular prevention should be at this high-risk group.

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