COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE

Economic impact of migraine and other episodic headaches in France: data from the GRIM2000 study

André Pradalier, Jean-Paul Auray, Abdelkader El Hasnaoui, Kazem Alzahouri, Jean-François Dartigues, Gérard Duru, Patrick Henry, Michel Lantéri-Minet, Christian Lucas, Guy Chazot, Anne-François Gaudin
PharmacoEconomics 2004, 22 (15): 985-99
15449963

BACKGROUND: Migraine is a prevalent and incapacitating condition that affects individuals in the prime of their productive life, thus generating an economic burden for both society and healthcare systems. The direct annual healthcare costs of migraine in France were assessed over 10 years ago, and the current study updates these figures.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the economic cost (primarily direct costs) of migraine and other episodic headache in France based on a general population survey of headache, the GRIM2000 (Groupe de Researche Interdisciplinaire sur la Migraine).

DESIGN: From a representative general population sample of 10,585 individuals aged > or = 15 years in France in 1999, 1486 individuals experiencing headaches were identified and interviewed regarding healthcare resource consumption in the previous 6 months. By applying unit costs to the resource data, costings (in 1999 values) were determined for physician consultations, hospitalisation, medication use and diagnostic/laboratory tests, and evaluated from a healthcare system perspective. Information on absenteeism and lost productivity was derived from the Migraine Disability Assessment Score (MIDAS) questionnaire.

RESULTS: The prevalence of migraine (including migrainous disorder) was determined to be 17%. Total annual direct healthcare costs were estimated to be Euros 128 per individual with migraine in 1999, corresponding to Euros 1044 million when extrapolated to all individuals experiencing migraine and aged > or = 15 years. Around two-thirds of this cost accrued to the social security system (Euros 698 million; Euros 85 per individual). The total annual direct cost of other forms of episodic headache was much lower at Euros 28 per individual (social security cost Euros 18); with a prevalence of 9.2%, the annual national direct cost for other forms of episodic headache totalled Euros 124 million. The principal cost element was physician consultations. However, it was found that many individuals had never consulted a physician for their headaches, and self-medication contributed substantially to the medication costs (the second greatest cost factor for migraine). The cost per individual rose steeply with increasing severity of headache.

CONCLUSIONS: The direct healthcare costs of migraine do not seem to have risen significantly over the past decade. A small minority of individuals with more severe headaches consume most of the healthcare resources devoted to migraine, while most individuals generate relatively low direct costs. The total annual direct costs in France for migraine are almost 10-fold higher than those of other episodic headache.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
15449963
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"