RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Efficacy of granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors in the induction treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a multicenter randomized study.

In all, 236 adults with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were randomly assigned to receive either granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), or granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), or no CSF during a 4-week 4-drugs induction chemotherapy. Two successive trials were performed. CSFs were given from the last infusion of anthracycline in Trial 1 or from day 4 of induction therapy in Trial 2 until neutrophil recovery. A total of 95 patients were included in the G-CSF group, 67 in the GM-CSF group, and 74 in the control group. Overall, CSFs showed a trend for a reduced incidence of severe infections and of days with antibiotics. Median time for neutrophil recovery was 17 days with G-CSF, 18 days with GM-CSF, and 21 days without CSF. In Trial 2, duration of hospitalization was significantly lower in the G-CSF group than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Time to neutrophil recovery was also significantly shorter (P < 0.05) and severe infections were lower in the G-CSF group (P = 0.01). CR rate was higher in the GM-CSF group as compared to the control group. This tended to be confirmed for the most aggressive ALL and was statistically significant for Philadelphia-positive ALL after salvage therapy (P = 0.04). There were no significant differences between the three groups in terms of disease-free survival.

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