Dosage recommendation of phenytoin for patients with epilepsy with different CYP2C9/CYP2C19 polymorphisms

Chin-Chuan Hung, Chun-Jung Lin, Chih-Chuan Chen, Chee-Jen Chang, Horng-Huei Liou
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 2004, 26 (5): 534-40
To search for the optimal dosage of phenytoin in patients with epilepsy based on the metabolic activities of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms, a total of 169 patients receiving phenytoin treatment for more than 1 month were recruited. Phenytoin concentration, serum albumin, liver function tests, and renal function tests were measured. CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-RFLP analysis, and NONMEM models were built to evaluate factors that would affect phenytoin metabolism. Patients were divided into 5 groups according to genotyping results (G1 to G5). Compared with extensive metabolizers in both CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 (G1), the Vmax (mg/kg/d) was 8.29% and 36.96% lower in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers (G3) and CYP2C9 poor metabolizers (G4), respectively. For the patient who was identified as a poor metabolizer in both CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 (G5), the Vmax was 45.75% lower than that of G1. In respect to Km (mg/L), it was 15.09% higher in G3 and 27.36% higher in G4 compared with that in G1. The Km of G5 was 91.71% higher than that of G1. The results revealed that the CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms have dramatic effects on the population pharmacokinetic parameters of phenytoin, especially for CYP2C9. Based on the Vm and Km values obtained in this study, the recommended dose ranges for G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5 patients would be 5.5-7, 5-7, 5-6, 3-4, and 2-3 mg/kg/d, respectively.

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