COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE

A neuropsychological investigation of male premutation carriers of fragile X syndrome

Caroline J Moore, Eileen M Daly, Nicole Schmitz, Flora Tassone, Carolyn Tysoe, Randi J Hagerman, Paul J Hagerman, Robin G Morris, Kieran C Murphy, Declan G M Murphy
Neuropsychologia 2004, 42 (14): 1934-47
15381024
It is currently thought that fragile X syndrome (FraX; the most common inherited form of learning disability) results from having more than 200 cytosine-guanine-guanine (CGG) trinucleotide repeats, with consequent methylation of the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene and loss of FMR1 protein (FMRP). It was also considered that premutation carriers (with 55-200 CGG repeats) are unaffected, although a tremor/ataxia syndrome has recently been described in older adult male carriers. We reported that premutation expansion of CGG trinucleotide repeats affects brain anatomy, which, together with other studies, indicates that the molecular model for FraX needs modification. However, there are few studies on the cognitive ability of adult male premutation carriers. Thus, we selected 20 male premutation carriers on the basis of their genetic phenotype, and compared them to 20 male controls matched on age, IQ and handedness. We investigated intellectual functioning, executive function, memory, attention, visual and spatial perception, and language and pragmatics. The premutation carriers had significant impairments on tests of executive function (Verbal Fluency, Trail Making Test and Tower of London) and memory (Names sub-test of the Doors and People, Verbal Paired Associates Immediate Recall and Visual Paired Associates Delayed Recall sub-tests of the WMS-R, and Category Fluency Test for natural kinds). We therefore suggest that CGG trinucleotide repeats in the premutation range affect specific neuronal circuits that are concordant with specific neuropsychological deficits; and that these deficits reflect an emerging neuropsychological phenotype of premutation FraX.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
15381024
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"