A comprehensive proteome map of growing Bacillus subtilis cells

Christine Eymann, Annette Dreisbach, Dirk Albrecht, Jörg Bernhardt, Dörte Becher, Sandy Gentner, Le Thi Tam, Knut Büttner, Gerrit Buurman, Christian Scharf, Simone Venz, Uwe Völker, Michael Hecker
Proteomics 2004, 4 (10): 2849-76
The proteome of growing cells of Bacillus subtilis was analyzed in order to provide the basis for its application in microbial physiology. DNA arrays were used to calculate the number of genes transcribed in growing cells. From the 4100 B. subtilis genes, 2515 were actively transcribed in cells grown under standard conditions. From these genes 1544 proteins should be covered by our standard gel system pI 4-7. Using this standard gel system and supplementary zoom gels (pI 5.5-6.7, 5-6, 4.5-5.5, and 4-5) 693 proteins which are expressed in growing cells were detected that cover more than 40% of the vegetative proteome predicted for this region. Particularly broad coverage and thus comprehensive monitoring will be possible for central carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt, and citric acid cycle), amino acid synthesis pathways, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and main cellular functions like replication, transcription, translation, and cell wall synthesis. Comparing the theoretical pI and Mr values with those experimentally determined a reasonable correlation was found for the majority of protein spots. By a color code outliers with dramatic deviations in charge or mass were visualized that may indicate post-translational modifications. In addition to the cytosolic neutral and alkaline proteins, 130 membrane proteins were found relying on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) separation in combination with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) techniques. The vegetative proteome containing 876 proteins in total is now ready for physiological applications. Two main proteome fractions (pI 4-7 and zoom gel pI 4.5-5.5) should be sufficient for such high-throughput physiological proteomics.

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