Anatomic variations due to radical prostatectomy. Impact on target volume definition and dose-volume parameters of rectum and bladder

Giuseppe Sanguineti, Pietro Castellone, Franca Foppiano, Paola Franzone, Michela Marcenaro, Piero Tognoni, Angelo Bolognesi, Giovanni Luca Ceresoli, Claudio Fiorino
Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al] 2004, 180 (9): 563-72

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A quantitative estimate of the impact of prostatectomy on pelvic anatomy is unavailable, even if it would be an important prerequisite for a precise definition of clinical target volume (CTV) in post-prostatectomy radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of prostatectomy on the definition of CTV, on the position of bladder and rectum and their implications for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3-D CRT).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six patients eligible for radical retropubic prostatectomy were considered. Each patient underwent a planning CT between 1 week and 1 month before surgery (CTpre), and then CT was repeated in the same positioning 1-2 months after surgery (CTpost). For each patient the CT(pre/post) scans were matched; rectum, bladder and CTV were contoured on both CT scans for each patient by one observer. Two different CTVs were contoured: CTV1: prostate + seminal vesicles in CTpre; prostate + seminal vesicles surgical bed in CTpost; CTV2: prostate in CTpre; prostate surgical bed in CT(post). After image registration, the contours of rectum, bladder and CTV1/2 drawn on CTpost were transferred on CTpre. The corresponding planning target volumes (PTVs) were generated, and for each PTV, a conformal four field technique using 18-MV X-rays was planned. The volumes of CTV1, CTV2, PTV1, PTV2, rectum and bladder pre- and post-surgery were compared. Differences in 3-D position of these structures before and after surgery were analyzed by beam's eye view (BEV) images. Pre- and post-surgery dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of rectum and bladder were compared together with the fraction of rectum/bladder receiving at least 95% of the ICRU dose (V95), the treated volume (TV, body included in the 95% isodose) and the irradiated volume (IV, body included in the 50% isodose).

RESULTS: For both CTV1 and CTV2, the volumes were significantly reduced after prostatectomy (average reduction around 30 cm3 for both; range 0-60 cm3). This reduction was mainly due to a more caudal definition of the cranial edge of CTV after prostatectomy (average difference for CTV2: 1.5 cm; range 0-2.5 cm). Concerning the bladder, a systematic posterior shift of the bladder base (average: 1.5 cm) was found and was correlated with a significant reduction of V95 for bladder (around 10 cm3; p = 0.03). V95 of the rectum, TV and IV also resulted to be significantly lower after surgery. The average reduction of V95 for the rectum was relatively small (2.5 cm3 of rectal wall).

CONCLUSION: The impact of prostatectomy on CTV definition is high. A significant reduction of CTV, PTV, TV and IV may be expected after surgery with a consequent reduction of the portions of rectum/bladder irradiated with adjuvant radiotherapy.

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