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Carotid intima-media thickness and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in patients with and without coronary artery disease

Ravi R Kasliwal, Manish Bansal, Kartikeya Bhargava, Hansa Gupta, Sharad Tandon, Vinayak Agrawal
Indian Heart Journal 2004, 56 (2): 117-22
15377132

BACKGROUND: Carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity are non-invasive markers of atherosclerosis and have been shown to reliably predict presence and extent of atherosclerotic vascular disease. However, studies examining their association with each other have shown inconsistent results. Hence it was sought to assess correlation between carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity in patients with and without coronary artery disease.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-four patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease and 84 age-matched individuals without coronary artery disease but having one or more conventional cardiovascular risk factors were included in the study. Individuals with established cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease were excluded from the study. Carotid intima-media thickness of far wall was measured at three predefined sites (distal common carotid, carotid bifurcation and proximal internal carotid artery) on each side. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured non-invasively using VP 1000 (Colin Corporation) automated ABI/ PWV analyzer. There was no significant difference in gender and presence of cardiovascular risk factors in the two groups. Mean and maximum carotid intima-media thickness and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity were all significantly higher in coronary artery disease patients as compared to patients without coronary artery disease (0.842 v. ( 0.657 mm, p <0.0001; 1.076 v. 0.795 mm, p <0.0001; 1708.63 v. 1547.26 cm/s, p <0.0004 respectively). There was a significant correlation between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and both mean and maximum carotid intima-media thickness in patients with coronary artery disease (r = 0.47, p <0.0001 and r=0.41, p < 0.0008 respectively) but not in individuals without coronary artery disease (r=0.01 and -0.1 respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Presence of significant correlation between carotid intima-media thickness and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in patients with coronary artery disease but absence of the same in individuals without major atherosclerotic vascular disease suggests that the correlation between carotid intima-media thickness and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity becomes stronger with increasing extent of atherosclerosis.

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